Three weeks after the bombings, religious hate crimes in London had increased six-fold (‘Hate Crimes Soar after Bombings’, BBC News, 4 August 2005, available at news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/4740015.stm), and 20% of Muslim Britons indicated that they or their family members ‘had experienced hostility or abuse’ from non-Muslims because of their religion since the bombings took place (‘Two-thirds of Muslims Consider Leaving the UK’, Guardian Unlimited, 26 July 2005, available at politics.guardian.co.uk/polls/story/0,11030,1536259,00.html. For the full poll, see www.icmresearch.co.uk/reviews/2005/Guardian%20-%20muslims%20july05/Guardian%20Muslims%20jul05.asp.
As Tariq Modood observes, Muslims in Europe ‘have found themselves bearing the brunt of a new wave of suspicion and hostility, and strongly voiced if imprecise doubts being cast on their loyalty as citizens’. See Modood, T, ‘Muslims and the Politics of Difference’ (2003) 74 Political Quarterly 100, 101.
60 See Campbell, C and Connolly, I, ‘A Model for the “War on Terrorism”? Military Intervention in Northern Ireland and the 1970 Falls Curfew’ (2003) 30 Journal of Law and Society