Article 23 CISG

A contract is concluded at the moment when an acceptance of an offer becomes effective in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.


A.  Content and Purpose of Article 23 CISG

Article 23 CISG requires interpretation by other provisions of the Convention. Read in conjunction with Article 18(2) CISG, a contract is concluded when acceptance of an offer reaches the offeror. As in Article 18(3) CISG, effective acceptance, and thereby the conclusion of the contract, can also take place by conduct. This provision was considered necessary precisely because the point in time of the conclusion of the contract is referred to numerous times throughout the CISG.


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